Fortresses in Helsinki

Suomenlinna

8.9/10

Suomenlinna (finski za "Finska utvrda"), koja je do 1918. bila poznata kao Viapori (finski) ili Sveaborg (švedski za "Sveova utvrda"), je naseljena pomorska utvrda koja se proteže na šest otoka (Kustaanmiekka, Susisaari, Iso-Mustasaari, Pikku-Mustasaari, Länsi-Mustasaari i Långören) u Baltičkom moru, koji su danas dio glavnog finskog grada, Helsinkija.

God. 1991. upisana je na UNESCO-v popis mjesta svjetske baštine u Europi kao jedinstven primjer europske pomorske utvrde svog doba.

Povijest

Švedski kraljevi su započeli njezinu izgradnju 1748. godine kako bi se odbranili od nadiranja Ruskog Carstva. Njezine utvrde dizajnirao je Augustin Ehrensvärd na kojega je utjecao najpoznatiji francuski graditelj utvrda, Vauban. Stoga ova utvrda ima zvjezdoliki plan i mnoštvo bastiona koji su prilagođeni njezinoj lokaciji na šest otoka. Pored vojnih baraka počeo je nicati i pravi barokni grad s velikim trgom na otoku Iso Mustasaari, po uzoru na pariški Place Vendôme, za vojne oficire.

Kako bi se osigurala sigurnost utvrde na kopnu su također izgrađene utvrde kako neprijatelj ne bi mogao grupirati svoju vojsku u eventualnom napadu na Švedsku. Tu je bio smješten cijeli finski garnizon švedske vojske i kraljevska mornarica. Ipak, za Finskog rata, Suomenlinna se predala Rusiji 3. svibnja 1808. godine, kao posljednje švedko utočište u Finskoj. Nakon toga su Rusi okupirali cijelu Finsku 1809. godine.

Rusi su nastavili utvrđivati Suomenlinnu koja je strašno stradala od anglo-francuske flote u Krimskom ratu (1853.-56.). Rusi su je obnovili i dodatno utvrdili novim topovskim bunkerima.

Tijekom Prvog svjetskog rata i Finskog građanskog rata, Suomenlinna je pripala Finskoj 1917. godine i pretvorena je u vojni zatvor. God. 1973. vojska je napustila utvrdu i ona je postala finski zaštićeni spomenik baštine, a na njenim otocima trajno obitava oko 900 stanovnika koji pripadaju gradu Helsinkiju. Tu se još uvijek nalazi Pomorska akademija finske mornarice (Merisotakoulu), ali je uglavnom turistička atrakcija. God. 2009. posjetilo ju je više od 713,000 posjetitelja.

Pogled na Suomenlinnu iz Helsinkija</div>

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Bommy Cha
16 September 2016
Take a ferry and spend a few hours on this historical fortress island. Cold and windy in the winter but still worth it to stroll through. Museums can be a hit or miss.
Swiss In Hong Kong ????????????????
Great place: a fortress on a small island around 15 minutes far away of Helsinki. Go there with the ferry and walk around. Best view in the south of the island!
James Mashiri
9 September 2015
Great history. Very good example of a fortress island. UNESCO world heritage site. Be sure to visit the WWII submarine Vesikko and the lighthouse church as they're asking the few left in the world.
Ina Li
5 January 2016
Best to come visit in summer but winter time gives another more rough, windy and silent atmosphere with little tourists
Fred Spofforth
12 January 2020
Quiet beautiful island. If you are in Helsinki for more than a day, don’t miss it. It is a short pleasant ferry ride from central Helsinki and the island has enough to occupy you for a few hours.
Katja M.
16 August 2015
Great outdoor museum! Take the food basket from home because local cafes are expensive. Two-way ticket is €5 (from Helsinki).
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Suomenlinna Maritime Fortress, 00190 Helsinki, Finland

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Suomenlinna / Sveaborg on Foursquare

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